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Sample details Pages: 15 Words: 4631 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? For many businesses, the issue about financial sources (where to get funds from for starting up) can be crucial for the success of the business. They are divided into internal and external sources. We have to choose the best financial option in order to open our new retail pharmacy. In fact, the type of finance being chosen will depend on what kind of business and how much money is needed and how the money is spent. 6.1 Internal Sources 6.1.1Personal savings Personal savings are amounts of money that a business person, partner or shareholder has at their disposal to do with as they wish. For example, if someone uses his or her savings to invest in his or her own or another business, then the source of finance comes under the heading of personal savings. The financial sources of our new retail pharmacy is solely from our personal savings with each of us comes out with RM 100,000. Therefore, the sum of our capital is RM 500,000 from 5 individuals. However, there are other financial options available other than personal savings such as from family and friends (internal sources), from banks, outside investors, grant and community development finance institution (external sources). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Sources of finance available to a startup" essay for you Create order 6.1.2 Family and friends When the money is insufficient to start a new business, friends and family may be willing to help. They might lend money for the new business or they might invest in the business, such as by buying shares. A written agreement in place that sets out terms and conditions, including any interest and repayment terms should be made to avoid misunderstandings. Advantages Friends or family may be more willing to lend money than a bank, particularly if security for a loan is not provided. Friends and family may offer easy terms such as an interest-free loan. It should make it easier to get additional finance from the bank if some finance can be raised from own resources or friends and family. 6.2 External Sources 6.2.1 Bank After a credible business plan is made, borrow from a bank is much easier. Many businesses use overdrafts for day-to-day borrowing and loans to finance large purchases such as equipment. Moreover, when business is likely to have peaks and troughs in its cash flow, its essential to be able to clearly illustrate these to the bank so an overdraft can be planned. 6.2.2 Outside investors A larger business with good prospects might attract outside investors. For example, business angels typically invest RM 100,000 or more in exchange for a share in the business. 6.2.3 Grant Some of the business is qualified for a grant from government. For example, if a business is setting up in a deprived area. 6.2.4 Community development finance institution If your business is setting up in a deprived area, or in a sector that is not normally catered for by mainstream lenders, finance from a community development finance institution will be an option as well. 6.3 Accounting 6.3.1 Introduction Accounting is a process of: i. Collecting source documents as evidence of transactions and as the source for recording business transactions. ii. Recording relevant details from source documents in the respective books of prime entry. iii. Summarising from the books of prime entry and transferring these summaries to the respective ledgers. iv. Communicating the accounting information to users, by preparing the financial statements. Figure 8: The Accounting Cycle Source Documents are written documents that contain details of the business transactions. They provide evidence that the transactions have taken place. Source Documents Explanations Invoice To inform customer the amount to be paid, amount of discount given, whether in cash or credit term and interest charges for late payment. Credit Note To deduct an amount overcharged in the invoice, e.g. returns of goods from customers. Debit Note To add to the amount of Invoice for any additional charges, e.g. transport fee, interest charges and any amount undercharged. Cash Bill Same as invoice. Used only when transactions is on cash terms. Payment voucher To record the payment by cheque or cash. Official receipt To acknowledge money has been collected. Memo A written note from the management to inform about decision on certain transactions. Table 1: Sources of documents The 7 Books of Prime Entry record the daily business transactions in chronological order based on the source documents. The 7 Books of Prime Entry Explanation Cash Book Cash/cheque transactions Petty Cash Book Small amount of daily payments, such as stationery, wages for cleaning and minor repairs. Sales Journal Sales of goods on credit terms. Purchases Journal Purchases of goods on credit terms. Sales Returns/ Returns Inwards Returns of goods that were sold on credit terms. (defective/damaged goods) Purchase Returns/ Returns Outwards Returns of goods that were purchase on credit terms. (defective/damaged goods) General Journal All other business transactions. Table 2: The 7 Books of Prime Entry The 3 ledgers are the final sets of accounts containing the summarised accounting information that have been transferred/ posted from the books of prime entry, using double entry system. The 3 Ledgers Explanation General Ledger This is the main ledger that contains all the accounts that summarises all the business transactions that occurred. Sales Ledger Contains all the individual trade receivables accounts (customers on credit terms). Purchase Ledger Contains all the individual trade payables accounts (suppliers on credit terms). Table 3: Ledgers 6.3.2 Management and Financial Accounting Management Accounting is an area of accounting associated with providing financial and other information to all levels of management in an organisation to enable them to carry out their planning, controlling and decision making responsibilities. It is used in all forms of organisations-profit-seeking and not-for-profit business undertakings; sole traders, partnerships and companies; retailing, manufacturing and service businesses; and government. Management accounting covers: Cost behaviour and cost-volume-profit relationships, Decision making through incremental analysis, Budgeting for financial planning and control, Capital budgeting, Accounting and reporting for business segment operations. Financial Accounting is concerned with reporting information to users external to an entity in order to help them to make sound economic decisons about the entitys performance and final position. Types of reports used in management accounting and financial accounting are as below: Management accounting Financial Accounting Special-purpose reports for internal users: Financial budgets Sales forecasts Performance reports Cost-of-production reports Incremental analysis reports Do not have to comply with accounting standards. General-purpose financial reports for external users: Balance sheet Income statement Statement of changes in equity Cash flow statement Required by regulatory authorities; must comply with accounting standards. Table 4: Differences between management accounting and financial accounting We need accounting information (i.e. financial statements) to aid in decision making, planning, control and coordination of our pharmacy business activities. Apart from this, our finance providers (i.e. banks and financial instituitions who lend money to a business) need to ensure our finance stability and ability to repay the amount borrowed (principal sum) and pay interests. 6.3.3 Basic Financial Statements Three types of information contained in financial statements serve to inform users about the entity. Firstly, we want information about our business performance. As a business entity, information about its ability to earn profits is an essential part of our financial reports. The second type of information that is necessary for making decisions about our entity is its financial position. The financial position deals with the economic resources controlled by an entity, its financial structure, its capacity to adapt to changes in its environment, and its liquidity and solvency. Lastly, information about the entitys cash flows is useful for us to assess the entitiys operating and financing activities. Operating activities includes: The collection of cash for service provided, The sale of goods to customers, The purchase of goods for sale, The payment for supplier for goods or services purchased, Collection of debts from customers, Payment of wages to employe es and The payment of income tax to the government. On the other hand, financing activities engaged by our business would probably includes raising of capital by issuing shares or borrowing money from financial institution, and the repayment of these borrowed funds. The Balance Sheet reports the financial position of an entity at a specific point of time. The financial position is reflected by the assets of the entity, its liabilities or debts owed, and the owners equity. 6.4 Balance Sheet Statement 6.4.1 Balance Sheet Definition A balance sheet is a complete view of how a business is doing financially. The balance can be prepared in one of two ways:Ãâ By using a general ledger, By adding all of the assets, liabilities and equities to your balance sheet. 6.4.2 Why Is Balance Sheet Important? A Balance Sheet is important because it gives the information of a business financial situation at any given time period. 6.4.3 How to Read A Balance Sheet? The balance sheet is broken down into three main sections. The top section includes the company name, the title of the company and the time period of the form. The assets section is one of the two sections below the top section.ÃâÃ This section includes all of the companys assets.ÃâÃ The assets are the items the company owns which may include, accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, furniture, automobile, prepared expenses and so on. The liability section is on the other side of the asset section.ÃâÃ The liabilities may include items like, accounts payable, notes payable, interest payable, payroll accrual, long term liabilities, short term liabilities and so on. The equities can be included on the same side as liabilities.ÃâÃ The equities are shareholders and the owners equities (what the owner has put into it).ÃâÃ It includes such items as; capital, stock, retained earning and so on. If, the assets are more than the liabilities and equi ties you will have a net profit.ÃâÃ But, if the liabilities and equities are more than the assets you will have a net loss. Balance Sheet Template 1 Sample Business Plan Balance Sheet Template For the Month Ended ______. Right SideÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Ãâ Current Assets Fixed Assets Other Assets Ãâ Left Side Current Liabilities ÃâÃ Long Term LiabilitiesÃâÃ Ãâ Shareholders Equity Ãâ Balance Sheet Template 2 Ãâ Sample Business Plan Balance Sheet Template For the Month Ended __________. Ãâ Assets Ãâ Current AssetsÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ (Cash) Ãâ Petty CashÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Accounts ReceivableÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ InventoryÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Short Term InvestmentsÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM______ Ãâ Prepaid ExpensesÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Long Term InvestmentsÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM______ Ãâ Fixed Assets (Land)ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM______ Ãâ BuildingsÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ ImprovementsÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ EquipmentÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ FurnitureÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Automobile / VehicleÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM______ Ãâ Other Assets Ãâ 1.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ 2.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ 3.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ 4.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ 5.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ 6.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ 7.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ 8.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Liability Ãâ Current LiabilitiesÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Accounts PayableÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Notes PayableÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ InterestÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ PayableÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM______ Ãâ Taxes PayableÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Federal Income TaxesÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ State Income TaxesÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Ãâ RM_______ Ãâ Self Employment TaxÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Property TaxÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ ÃâÃ Payroll AccrualÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Long Term LiabilitiesÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Notes PayableÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Total LiabilitiesÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Net Worth (Owner Equity)ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ ProprietorshipÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ or PartnershipÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ or CorporationÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Capital StockÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Surplus Paid InÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Retained EarningsÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Ãâ Total Net WorthÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Total AssetsÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ Total LiabilitiesÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ RM_______ The Income Statement (also known as profit and loss statement or an operating statement) reports the results of financial performance for a specific time period. Profit for the period is the excess of income over expenses for that time. If expenses for the period exceed income, a loss is incurred. The statement of changes in equity serves as a connecting link between the balance sheet and the income statement, and explains the changes that took place in equity during the period. 6.5 Accounting for a Partnership Most partnerships are not reporting entities and hence do not have to comply with accounting standards and financial reports are thus special-purpose reports. In a partnership, ownership interests generally are not equal because the capital investments and drawings of each partner vary over time. The profit or loss reported each accounting period is distributed to the partners in accordance with the partnership agreement. There are two commonly used methods for accounting equity in a partnership: Method 1: use of Capital accounts for each partner which record capital contributed and withdrawn; and each partners periodic share of profits and/or losses. Method 2: use of Capital accounts with fixed balances for each partner reflecting only the capital contributed and capital withdrawn. A partners share of profits and/or losses and drawings from profits are recorded in separate Retained Earnings (or Current) account for each partner. 6.5.1 Allocation of partnership profits and losses We consider 3 elements in establishing an equitable way to allocate profits and losses: A return for the personal services performed by the partner, A return on the capital provided by the partners, A return for the business risks assumed by the partners. Others more common profit and loss sharing agreements includes: A fixed ratio, A ratio based on capital balances, A fixed ratio established by the partners after allowing for interest on capital contributions and salaries to partner for services rendered to the partnership. 6.5.2 Financial Statements for a Partnership If the partnership is not a reporting entity, it will prepare a special-purpose report. If the partnership is a reporting entity, it must prepare general -purpose financial reports complying with accounting standards. Each individual partners equity in business is reported separately on the balance sheet or in a separate statement of changes in partners equity; so does the profit or loss allocation for a specific period. Also, salaries authorised for each partner, interest on capital investments and interests on drawings is recognised as an allocation of profit. In our retail pharmacy, the partnership is a reporting entity, therefore, a general -purpose financial reports are prepared which are complying with accounting standards- an income statement, a statement of changes in partners equity, a balance sheet and a cash flow statement. 6.6 Computerized Business Managing System We have chosen a computerized business managing system called POS, which stands for Point of Sale. This technology is widely used in retail business management. When a customer would like to purchase an item or pay a bill, the POS system is extremely useful to register the purchase, keep track of inventory, and purchase details such as time, date and store location. These data are saved in the database which then can be used for getting information or records from a huge amount of data (data mining). POS systems usually work via infrared bar code readers, a register and bar code reader are connected to a computer terminal. The consumers are benefited because the check out is fast, reliable and accurate. On the other hand, we are able to keep track of daily sales as well as departmental sales analysis and have the sales record for future reference. Another advantage of POS system is the ability to manage the account of the pharmacy business. The accounting software system incl udes the system as followed: Debtors System. Creditors System. General Ledger System. Stock System. Sales Invoicing System. Sales Order System. Purchase Order System Consignment Stock System Club Membership System. Equipment Warranty Tracking System. 6.7 Taxation Income Tax is defined as incomes of individual or companies which are derived from Malaysia or received in Malaysia. Income Tax Act 1967 is the principal statute on taxation and the following are sources of income that are subjected to tax: income from employment, trade, profession and business dividends and interests premiums other form of income 6.7.1 Company Tax All companies in Malaysia are taxed at the rate of 26% on the total income. However, tax from corporation is reduced to 25% in year 2009. 6.7.2 Personal Income Tax The taxation rate depends on the individuals status that is determined by the period of stay in the country, under Section 7 of the Income Tax Act 1967. Generally, individual who is staying in Malaysia for more than 182 days in every year is subjected for taxation. However, a non-resident individual is subjected to tax at rate of 28%. Income Tax is defined as incomes of individual or companies which are derived from Malaysia or received in Malaysia. Before establishing a new retail pharmacy, we need to apply the business license and license A so that we can run our business legally. Those forms can be downloaded from the respective website. The forms that are required include: 7.1 Premise and signboard license application form 7.2 Pharmacist annual retention form 7.3 Business name application form 7.4 Architecture checklist form 7.5 Fire extinguisher examination and approval form 7.6 Business license supporting form 7.7 Business advertising form ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE: The retail pharmacy is owned by us, the 5 registered pharmacists whose name Fum Hoang Jen, Kok Le Fei, Lai Yik Shan, Lim Syok Hua and Phua Li Yung. A marketing manager is employed for managing the sales and marketing of the pharmacy business. He or she is in duty to come out with marketing strategies to increase the profit and build up the reputation of the pharmacy business. In addition, 2 cashiers and 2 sales people are employed to assist the operation of the pharmacy business. Furthermore, among the 5 of us, one of us will be the drug managers or supervisors while being in the possession of presidents of the pharmacy. The other 4 of us are hospital pharmacists who are just the partners of the pharmacy business. Besides that, 2 assistant pharmacists are employed to in our pharmacy. On the other hand, an accounting manager is employed to do the accounting of the pharmacy business. Additionally, an accounting clerk is also employed to assist the accounting manager. Pharmacy merc handising involves the proper placement of goods on pharmacy shelves. The space of a pharmacy available for goods to be displayed is limited by the size and design of the store. Therefore, our retail pharmacy separates the space of our pharmacy into departments or sections that contain major categories of products. In fact, merchandise in a pharmacy tends to flow from one department to the next. This flow is accomplished by placing related departments next to or near each other so can attract the attention of the target customers. For example in our retail pharmacy, beside the cosmetic area is the area arranged with hair care products, oral care products and skin care products. The target of these products is normally the female customers. So, if they are placed beside the cosmetic area, they are more accessible to the female customers. Pharmacy aisles should be taken into consideration as well as aisles are of various lengths and heights. If an aisle is longer, cross aisles shou ld be provided. Cross aisles are a break in a long run of shelving creating an aisle that allows customers to move easily across the store. In our retail pharmacy, cross aisles are provided for smooth traffic flow and increase visible space for item placement. Moreover, our retail pharmacy uses the space at the beginnings and ends of the aisle runs where these spaces often are referred to as end caps. We use end caps in our retail pharmacy to display promotional and seasonal items, bulk items, impulse items and new products to highlight specific products in order to gain shoppers attention. In addition to this, floor-stand displays will be used in our retail pharmacy to place large quantities of an item on display and making the products easily accessible to consumers as manufacturers often supply these displays and other promotional materials to pharmacy to highlight their products. Pharmacy shelves are used for storing and displaying drugs and related items. The biggest challen ge with these shelving would be that the shelves should be easy to clean. The pharmacy shelving used in our retail pharmacy is shelvesÃâÃ that are blend functionality with flexibility with high quality shelving display to draw customers into our pharmacy. More storage, less space, easy to install, easy to clean and maintain are the key criteria for our retail pharmacy shelves. Figure 9: Pharmacy shelves for oral care, skin care and hair care products Figure 10: Pharmacy shelves for supplements and OTC products Pharmacists are the more frequently and more accessible to patients or often see on a consistent basis compared to doctors. This is because no appointment is needed to see pharmacist where customers can talk to pharmacists in confidence even about symptoms that are very personal. In order to provide a more comfortable place for our customers, there is a counseling room in our pharmacy to provide privacy for our customers. There are many services available in o ur retail pharmacy include: Full clinical medication review our pharmacists will review the prescribed medicines written on the prescription where this service is about having an in depth look at the medicines to confirm the dosage, strength, frequency and drug-drug interactions before dispensing. Dispensing and counseling of medicines our pharmacists will dispense the medications after a full clinical medication review and will counsel the patients on the indication, instructions of use, side effects and the expiry date of the medications. One-to-one consultations is provided to ensure patients are getting the most information on the medicines particularly useful for those patients on multiple or long-term medication. Advice on supplements our pharmacist will provide knowledge on the variety of supplement available and assist customers in purchasing supplement products for certain medical conditions. Minor Ailments Service our pharmacists are able to provide treatme nts for a range of minor ailments such as athletes foot, headlice, allergic conjunctivitis, dandruff, acne and other minor ailments. Stop smoking service our pharmacists can help patients give up smoking through advice, support and if appropriate the Nicotine Replacement Therapy. Blood pressure testing our pharmacists can check your blood pressure and offer lifestyle advice about how to stay healthy. Cholesterol testing Our pharmacists can offer a simple finger prick test that can reveal the cholesterol level and give advice on how to reduce cholesterol level and stay healthy. Blood glucose testing Our pharmacists can offer a simple finger prick test that can reveal the blood glucose level and give advice on how to keep it low or reduce it as having too much glucose in blood may indicate a greater risk of diabetes. Family planning Our pharmacists can counsel couples about the information on family planning by providing knowledge on the medications available such as OCP (Oral Contraceptive Pill) or other additional contraception method such as condom. 11.1 Introduction The primary risk exposure for pharmacists was related to traditional business risks (i.e., fire, theft, etc.), coupled with negligence related to prescription-filling errors. Modern pharmacy practice now must also consider new risks related to the use of technology and electronic data transmission, patient counselling and drug utilization review requirements, and protected private health information. 11.2 Definition of risk Risks are asscociated with negative outcomes. A risk may best be described as some degree of probability that exposure to a hazard will lead to a negative outcome or consequence such as loss, damage, injury or death. 11.3 Criteria for insurable risk For a pure risk to be insurable, it must meet certain requirement: The loss must be measurable in dollar figures, easy to measure, and result in a substantial loss. The loss must have a defined time and place. The loss must be accidental for the insured. There should be no prospect of gain or profit for the individual. The probability of the event occurring in a population can be accurately calculated. There must be a sufficiently large number of homogeneous individuals with similar risks to make losses predictable. The insured must have an insurable interest. Compensation cannot be awarded to those not actually suffering the loss. The insurance premium must be available for a reasonable cost. One would not want to pay an insurance premium greater than the value of the item insured. For our retail pharmacy, a risk management process should be developed to analyze and identify strategies to manage risk threats in order to protect the vital assets of a pharmacy t hrough coping with uncertainty. This process involves not only identifying risks but also assessing the threat potential and making decisions on managing those risks. There are many types of insurance for a pharmacy. The geographic location, type of practice and services offered will influence the types of insurance needed. In fact, the risk management process is a continuous process, and periodic evaluations are necessary to address new or emerging risk threats to the pharmacy. 11.4 Types of Insurance For our retail pharmacy, the types of insurance that needed to protect our pharmacy include: Figure 11: Types of insurance needed 11.4.1 Property Insurance This is one of the most common types of insurance for protecting the property and physical assets of any business entity. The policy Scope of Cover Destruction to the property insured whilst contained in the business or trade premises arising from: Theft consequent upon actual forcible and violent entry into the insured premises Theft or any attempt thereat by a person feloniously concealed on the said premises Hold up or armed robbery Damage to the building due to theft or attempt thereat. 11.4.2 Public Liability Insurance The Public Liability Insurance Policy is designed to protect in order to pay compensation for accidental damage to the property of the other person caused by or through the negligence of the insured or his employees or by any defect in the premises owned or any defects in the ways, works of the insured. In addition, the Policy also pays for the litigation costs and expenses for defense that are incurred with the written consent of the Company. The policy scope of cover The company shall indemnify at law for damages and claimants expenses in respect of: a. accidental bodily injury to any person not being a member of the Insureds household or any person in the service of the Insured. b. accidental damage to property not belonging to or in the custody or control of the Insured. c. any legal expenses incurred by the Insured in defending legal proceedings with the Companys written consent. 11.4.3 Professional Indemnity Insurance Professional Indemnity Insurance is effected to protect professional persons who supply a skill or service and owe a duty of care to their clients. The policy will indemnify in the event of any breach of professional duties or responsibilities by reason of any negligent act wherever committed or alleged to have committed by the Insured or any person who may enter into the firm insured in a professional capacity or any person employed by the Insured. The policy scope of cover Unlike other general liability policies, Professional Indemnity policy normally provides indemnity to the Insured against financial losses only arising from the provision of professional services. Indemnity for defence costs and expenses is also provided. 11.4.4 Employers Liability Insurance Employers Liability Insurance Policy is designed to provide indemnity to the Insured against his liability at law and claimants cost for bodily injuries or diseases to Insureds Employees. The policy scope of cover The Employers Liability Insurance Policy indemnifies the Insured in order to pay compensation and claimants costs and expenses in respect of the bodily injury by accident or disease to the Insureds Employees for which he is liable and pay all costs with the company. 11.4.5 Fire Insurance Fire Insurance provides protection for losses to property such as buildings, contents, furniture, plant and machinery as well as stock. The basic fire policy covers losses and/or damages caused by fire, lightning and domestic gas explosion. The basic fire policy can be extend to cover loss or damage caused by the extraneous perils such as: Aircraft damage Earthquake volcanic eruption Bush/Lalang Explosion (with / without boilers) Impact damage by vehicles Subsidence landslip Riot strike malicious damage Storm tempest Flood Damage by falling trees or branches Spontaneous combustion Sprinkler leakage 11.4.6 Fire Consequential Loss Insurance Fire Insurance covers physical loss or damage to property insured but does not include resultant losses in business profits and due to partial or complete cessation of operations. The Fire Consequential Loss policy also allows you to pay the continuing overheads or standing charges such as rent, mortgages and loans, salaries / wages of employees not gainfully employed during the interruption including payments to employees whose services are no longer required, additional working expenses reasonably incurred to reduce the effects of damage on the business such as renting of temporary premises and hiring of machinery or additional labour costs.
Friday, May 8, 2020
As the anti-apartheid struggle ramped up in South Africa in the 1980s, the Kagiso Trust was formed as a NGO to support the struggle against apartheid and to distribute funds from the European Union and other donors. This was to provide the uplifting and empowerment of disadvantaged communities in South Africa through various development initiatives. At this stage, the core focus of the Kagiso Trust was on Ã¢â¬Å"building partnerships and collaborations to strengthen the implementation capacity of people and organisations in developmentÃ¢â¬ . Following South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s transition into democracy in 1994, the Kagiso Trust refocused its goals and efforts on education , which is considered a critical component in the eradication of inequality. As the first democratic elections in South Africa approached, Kagiso Trust Investments (KTI) was established in 1993 Ã¢â¬Å"as a vehicle to generate sustainable, long-term financial supportÃ¢â¬ for Kagiso Trust programs. In 2011, Kagiso Tiso Holdings (KTH) was formed through a merger of KTI and Tiso Group. At the time, Tiso Group was Ã¢â¬Å"one of South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading black-controlled and managed investment firmsÃ¢â¬ with successful shareholder relationships with major financial institutions in South Africa . Through it, the Tiso Foundation was committed to the development of historically disadvantaged youth through various education programs. The merger of these two investment groups Ã¢â¬Å"created a sizeable investment company of critical mass, with accessShow MoreRelatedForeign Policy : The Transition Of Democracy1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnon-governmental actors. South Africa s post-apartheid foreign policy vision has become prosperous, peaceful, democratic, non-racial, non-sexist and united which contributes to the world that is equitable. 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I hope to explore why the percentage of women in politics isRead More Nelson Mandela Essay example849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Men Of Aparthied From 1948 to 1994 apartheid was enforced in South Africa. Apartheid was the name given to a form of legal segregation is South Africa. Apartheid first came about in 1948 when South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s National party took power. South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s government broke the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population into four groups. Those groups were the whites, who consisted of approximately 13 percent of the population, Africans, who were 77 percent of the population, people who were of mixed descent comprised eightRead MoreNelson Mandela is a Worldwide Influence973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstriving to make a large impact on not only South Africa, but the world as well (Schoemaker). Nelson Mandela is a major worldwide influence due to his key role in the transformation of South Africa from apartheid to democracy, the numerous charities he established and supported, and his lifelong dedication to ending racial segregation permanently in South Africa. Nelson Mandela was key in the transformation of South Africa from apartheid to democracy. He was the youngest son of a respected AfricanRead MoreHow Nelson Mandela Encouraged His Country to Move On869 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesC. S. Lewis once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Getting over a painful experience is much like crossing monkey bars. You have to let go at some point in order to move forward.Ã¢â¬ Nelson Mandela helped his country cross the monkey bars from apartheid to democracy, from Once a left-wing extremist, MandelaÃ¢â¬â¢s 27 years in prison taught him that the only way his country would survive and thrive was if his people learned to forgive and move on. A willingness to forgive can be all it takes to unite a fiercely divided countryRead MoreA Girl Stands At The Gate Of The Happiest Place1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgovernment will take to democratically recognize human rights violations and pay tribute to the victims of such violence, help to usher in a more just future. South Africa successfully used several mechanisms to transition from apartheid to democracy; IranÃ¢â¬â¢s futile attempt to transform from an out-of-touch monarchy to an oppressive democracy only affected the implication of the government. For a long time, Iranians have been discontent with their government. First, the Shah, out-of-touch with whatRead MoreFactors Affecting The Electoral Elections Of Zimbabwe And South Africa1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are several factors affecting declining electoral turnout in Zimbabwe and South Africa. After just twenty years of attainment of national independence from United Kingdom, in the year 2000, Zimbabwe experienced what can only be termed a major setback in its transition to democracy. Without threat of defeat from opposition parties, the ruling party ZANU PF had enjoyed dominance in Zimbabwe, where they enjoyed victory after victory in elections. Zimbabwe Parliamentary Elections of 2000 saw ZANURead MoreNelson Mandela Leadership Style1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis essay will examine Nelson Mandela s leadership style and sometimes controversial actions in the struggle to dismantle the system of apartheid in South Africa and how his style of leadership displayed many of Robert Greenleaf s ten characteristics of Servant Leadership. History The Dutch East India Company established a small settlement at what is now Cape Town in 1652 and by 1795, almost two-thirds of Cape Town residents were slaves. Slavery was a feature of the new colony almost from dayRead MoreThe Reasons Why South Africa Is Successful2853 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesSouth Africa (SA) stands out among the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa in terms of levels of development and the degrees of democracy. It is now regarded as the emerging middle power in the African continent. I argue that South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s place in the economic world also has different implications to different populations in this nation state. Nigeria on the other hand, has failed to sustain democracy and economic development. In this paper, I am going to critically analyze the reasons why South AfricaRead MoreHistory of Apartheid in South Africa1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistory of Apartheid in South Africa Apartheid; the word alone sends a shiver down the spines of the repressed African community. Apartheid represents a mordant period in the history of South Africa, when the policy of segregation and political and economic discriminating against non-European groups in the Republic of South Africa. The purpose is to educate the entire community not only to act against apartheid now, but to learn from the struggle against apartheid in order to help build a world
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Overeating is a major societal job. Throughout the history, perceptual experience of gluttony has been altering with clip owing to the altering societal, political, and economic state of affairss. Overeating is an eating upset which is centrally characterized by dependence to nutrient that leads to gorge eating. We will write a custom essay sample on Overeating In Youths And Adolescents Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Persons who suffer from compulsive eating upset suffer from episodes of uncontrolled feeding. It has been shown to hold psychological connexion as these persons tend to see pressured and manic feeling. As a consequence, the persons continue eating even after they become uncomfortably full. Binge eating tends to be followed by intense guilt and sometimes depression. While bulimics will purge themselves with purging or usage of laxatives, persons enduring from compulsive eating upset seldom puke or usage laxatives and hence they continue to roll up weight. Overeating has been recognized as one of the factors lending to increased incidences of corpulence and fleshiness which are major public wellness concerns. Overeating is a societal job which means that the job has taken different dimensions throughout history. It has been defined and understood in different ways depending on the altering political, societal, and economic conditions. Even during the mediaeval period, gorging was recognized but it was non understood the same manner it is understood today. This implies that understanding of the job has been altering with clip and though it was recognized as a mark of health in the yesteryear, it is considered a major wellness job today. Gorging today affects people across the societal demographic divide. The job is today compounded by societal values and wellness concerns. The authorities has put in topographic point different plans with an purpose of extenuating the consequence of the job but small has been achieved. Despite the current apprehension of gorging as a societal and wellness job, and the plans that have been instituted to extenuate its effects, it still remains a major societa l and wellness concerns in the universe today. Historical Background of Gorging Overeating is a societal job that has changed over clip. Since the mediaeval period, gorging has been understood in different ways depending on the altering economic, societal, and political environments. The job has besides been understood in different ways depending on the dominant societal values and the altering doctrine of societal public assistance ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Definition and apprehension of the job have transformed with alterations taking topographic point in the environment. The current definition and apprehension of the job is really different from how it was understood during the mediaeval period. In order to specify and understand gluttony, it is of import to first expression at the historical definition and apprehension of the job. Historical apprehension of orgy eating day of the months back to the mediaeval period. At a clip when the society was extremely stratified, orgy feeding was understood as a mark of surpluss ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . It was chiefly practiced by those who had surplus to eat, chiefly those in the upper category. This means that the apprehension of gorging during that clip was chiefly engraved in indulgence since these were merely those who could afford plentifulness of nutrient who ate more. Interestingly, gorging was non recognized as a wellness job during the in-between ages. Historical histories have revealed that the ancient Greece and Arabia had texts which showed description of binging and purging which means both were recognized at that clip. Besides in ancient Rome, historiographers have shown the being of constructed Ã¢â¬Ëvomitoriums Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬â topographic points where persons or feasters threw up nutrient. This is a mark of being of gorging even at those ancient times . It has recorded that Roman Emperor Claudis who ruled between 10 B.C. to A.D. 54 and Vitellius who ruled between A.D 15 to A.D. 19 were both bulimic. These historical histories affirm to the fact that eating upsets were recognized every bit early as 10 B.C. Although it was non recognized, gorging was the chief cause of fleshiness in ancient times. Obesity, which consequences from gorging, is an antique job whose perceptual experience has changed over clip. During ancient civilisation, fleshiness was perceived in much different ways merely like other gorging upsets. For illustration, antediluvian Egyptians considered fleshiness as disease. There have been wall drawing in Egypt which depicted fleshiness as an unwellnesss. There was besides the celebrated figurine of Venus statuettes, which depicted the image of an corpulent female trunk and which are presumed to hold played major functions in transporting out rites. Ancient Chinese besides showed that they understood the job of fleshiness and its consequence on the length of service of the job. The Aztecs steadfastly believed that fleshiness could be considered as a occult job which was affliction of Gods. Hippocrates, who is regarded as the male parent of medical specialty, recognized th at there were many sudden deceases which could be attributed to fleshiness, and this was expressed clearly in his Hagiographas. However, this perceptual experience changed from topographic point to topographic point. In countries where nutrient was scarce, gorging and eventful fleshiness were considered as marks and symbols of wealth and a higher societal position. In some African civilizations, brides were plumped up in order to fix them for kid bearing period. Before a nuptials, a bride was plumped up until she reached the expected weight to help her to bear a kid. This shows that gorging and fleshiness were perceived in different ways. However, serious focal point on the prevalence of eating upsets did non take topographic point until the 19th and twentieth century. At the clip, there was great scientific progress which provided for research model to transport out surveies to understand the being of these diseases. For illustration, it was in 1979 that a British head-shrinker, Gerald Russell, made official description of being of binge-eating syndrome. He is the 1 who gave it its current scientific name, binge-eating syndrome nervosa. He had carried out a scientific survey between 1972 and 1978 ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . What sets apart the description of Russell from those of ancient Greece and Arabia is that Russell identified that binge-eating syndrome was carried out in order to cut weight, while the ancient surveies did non place the ground for being of binging and binge-eating syndrome. Throughout history, gluttony has been perceived in different ways. This perceptual experience has changed greatly with altering times, particularly in the class of 1900 Ã¢â¬Ës. For illustration, Gallic interior decorator Paul Poiret showed that gorging and eventful fleshiness were unstylish. Poiret designed skin-revealing adult females apparels in order to uncover the organic structure image. In the class of the nineteenth century, the rate of fleshiness continued to increase at an dismaying rate as a consequence of different factors, among them change in feeding forms, particularly gorging and altering life style. Despite the historical records of being of orgy feeding, it had non been recognized as a wellness job until 1959. In 1959 head-shrinker and research worker Albert Stunkard foremost described gorging or orgy feeding as a societal job ( Cooper and Fairburn, 2003 ) . He foremost described it as Ã¢â¬ËNight Eating Syndrome Ã¢â¬Ë and later the term Binge Eating Disorder was used to depict gorging behavior that did non hold nocturnal constituent. This meant that the job was recognized as a societal job merely in twentieth century despite its being for many old ages. Although the job has been observed for a figure of old ages, there has non been any scientific survey that looked into the tendencies of gorging. At the clip Stunkard described the job, he had observed at that place was increasing figure of people who were going overweight. He noted that fleshy persons had more incidents of gorging compared to the remainder of the population ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The clinical observation convinced Stunkard that gorging was someway related to fleshiness and lone persons with fleshiness showed perennial episodes of gorging. With addition in the figure of corpulent persons owing to the altering life style, it was easy for Stunkard to associate the prevalence form and the hazard it posed to the general population. Since so, there have been several surveies that have looked into the job in greater inside informations. From the perceptual experience of a mark of surpluss during ancient times, orgy feeding was now recognized as a wellness issues ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Since Stunkard recognized the job in fleshy persons, it was non recognized by the medical governments in the state despite a figure of attendant surveies that have outlined the effects of the job. It was non until 1994 when Binge Eating Disorder ( BED ) was introduced in the DSM-IV standards. However it was introduced as a proviso psychiatric upset that required further research. It is of import to understand that during 1950s when the job was recognized as a major societal job, there were a batch of alterations that were taking topographic point in the societal, political, and economical environment. This period marked the terminal of the Second World War and the universe was pulling the attending off from war and political spat to concentrate on societal and wellness public assistance of the population. The terminal of the Second World War ushered the universe into a new epoch that was more focussed on societal public assistance of the people. Since the bend of the century, the universe has been much occupied with First and Second World War and the Great Depression that have wiped away wealth and people scrambled for nutrient rations. This means during the period after the terminal of the Second World War, people could entree more nutrient. Change in engineering has been recognized as another factor that contributed to increased incidence of gorging ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . The altering nature of life, chiefly driven by engineering, led to nutrient procedure engineerings that made nutrient available outside the kitchen. Traditionally, nutrient was merely found and prepared in the kitchen which meant that people had limited opportunities of feeding. However, the debut of modern nutrient processing engineering, particularly with the outgrowth of fast and convenient nutrient, people have more opportunities of feeding and this factor contributed to incidence of gorging. With handiness of nutrient in different public infinites, and with outgrowth of nutrient ironss like MacDonald Ã¢â¬Ës, which have been established in about every corner, people are encouraged to eat more frequently ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The increased incidence of gorging led to lifting instances of fleshiness and this was one of the factors that drew attending to the issue of gorging. Changes in societal life, particularly in working conditions, were another factor that contributed to the increased instances of gorging. Unlike times when people labored for hours in the field, the outgrowth of office occupations where manual occupations are left to machines encourages people to eat more ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . As the figure of working hours reduced and more work was taken over by machines, people had more clip to loosen up and eat. Even at work, the outgrowth of fast nutrient meant that people could transport nutrient to work and continued to eat while working. There were a figure of alterations at place that besides marked increased instances of gorging. The outgrowth of telecasting sets and other amusement devices stationed at place meant that people spent more hours watching Television while eating. At the terminal, they ate more than they would hold eaten if they were non watching Television ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Apart from positive impacts of technological promotion and wealth creative activity like holding TVs at place, there are other psychological alterations that come with alteration in life that have been pointed out as possible causes of gorging. As people became busy and pre-occupied and the economic system changed, the degree of emphasis kept on lifting ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . High degrees of emphasis and depression have besides been pointed out as possible grounds why people engaged in gorging. Research grounds has shown that compared to the yesteryear, economic crisis of modern clip, where life is centered on econ omic public presentation, has contributed to high degrees of emphasis. It is hence apparent that throughout history, definition and apprehension of gorging has dramatically changed in line with emerging societal, political, and economic tendencies. Earlier definition of gluttony is rather different from the modern 1. Binge feeding has changed from a mark of wealth in ancient times to a wellness job that is attributed to the alterations in the modern life style. While the gluttony and fleshiness have remained a job for the wealth in earlier times, most of the corpulent persons presents are found in the center and low category. Description of the gluttony in young persons and striplings Since the 1950s, gorging and attach toing corpulence and fleshiness complications have become major public wellness concerns in the United States. As has been the tradition with the United States authorities, it responds with policies aimed at extenuating the consequence of the job but seldom puts in topographic point policies to forestall the job. Since gorging was noted as a public wellness concern in 1950s, it took the authorities several old ages before any policy was put in topographic point to turn to the issue. With clip, gorging, coupled with altering life manner including reduced battle in physical exercisings has led to overweight and fleshiness, which are considered to be the major public wellness issues confronting the state ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Binge eating upset is presently a major job that cuts across the whole population. Each and every twelvemonth, there are 1000000s of Americans who succumb to different endangering feeding upsets, but orgy feeding remains a m ajor job across the whole population. It is estimated that about 16 million Americans suffer from one or more eating upsets including anorexia nervosa and binge-eating syndrome nervosa ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . However, a higher figure, 25 million Americans, are documented to endure from orgy eating. Interestingly, the job is more marked in adult females than in work forces. Statisticss shows that more than 90 % of those who are affected by these jobs are adult females ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . Unlike other wellness jobs that have been known to happen with age, either really early or really tardily in life, eating upsets occur in the in-between life. It has been documented that approximately 86 % of persons who report eating upsets are somewhat below the age of 20, which means the job starts developing early in life. For illustration, research findings show that approximately 11 % of high school pupils have one or more eating upsets, with orgy eating being a major job ( Raderprogr ams, 2010 ) . However, research shows conflicting consequences. A figure of surveies have pointed out that the prevalence of orgy feeding is non clear in the population. This is because the prevalence differs from topographic point to put depending on the societal economic position. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of orgy feeding in the general population ranges between 1-3 % ( Bull, 2004 ) . As was earlier observed in 1950s, orgy feeding remains a major job confronting fleshy and corpulent persons. A figure of surveies have clearly shown that among the corpulence and corpulent persons, orgy eating Texas Rangers from 25 % and more ( Bull, 2004 ) . In striplings and young person, orgy feeding has been described as a major wellness concern. Surveies have shown that doomed of control feeding or BED is prevailing in immature people non merely in the United States but in the whole universe ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Binge feeding is associated cross-sectionally with adiposeness in kids and young person and has been identified as a major factor predisposing them to overweight and fleshiness. Overeating is hence a major societal job non merely in grownups but in young persons. There are several grounds why the society is acquiring concerned with the job of gorging. Since the 2nd half of the twentieth century, increasing incidence of gluttony has attracted public attending owing to the societal and wellness branching on the general population. Overeating was recognized as a job associated with fleshiness. The ground why the society is going more concerned with increasing incidence of gorging can be related to the lifting instances of corpulence and fleshiness in the population. Obesity is an epidemic in the United States that affects people across the societal demographic divide. It is estimated that about three quarters or accurately more than 64 % of American grownups are overweight while 26 % are corpulent ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The figure of corpulent people in the United States has grown steadily from 19.4 % in 1997 to the recent 26.6 % in 2007 ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . By 2015, it is estimated that approximately 75 % of the United States population will be overweight while 41 % will be corpulent ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) .While fleshiness has been considered a job for the ripening persons, demographic prevalence portrays a distressing tendency as kids and striplings shows increasing instances of corpulence and fleshiness. In the last two decennaries, it has been observed that kids and young persons are going victims of complications associated with gluttony, with 15-25 % of American kids considered corpulent while the figure keeps on turning ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Worrying tendencies show that one in every five kids is fleshy and has a higher likeliness of going corpulent. By any criterions, these statistics are worrying and name for action from the concerned stakeholders. The above statistics clearly reveals why gluttony is considered a major public wellness concern. What is more badgering is the observation that overweight and corpulent kids and teens are likely to go corpulent when they grow up to grownups. This means that there is likeliness of holding a coevals of corpulent grownups in the cause of clip if nil is done ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Although there are multiple beginnings which contributed to overweight and fleshiness, gorging has been singled out as the chief cause of fleshiness in kids and teens. A recent survey that was carried out by World Health Organization Collaboration Center for Obesity Prevention found out that while research workers have long faulted lessening in physical activity as the chief cause of fleshiness, addition in gorging should instead be pointed out as the chief cause of fleshiness. For kids, gorging instead than other intensifying factors is the chief cause of fleshiness ( RWJF, 2010 ) . If the above tend ency is anything to travel by, so gorging should be a major concern for all persons in the society and so, it is a call for the authorities to come up with steps to extenuate the effects of gorging in kids. There are many societal, economic, political, and media forces that have garnered to specify gorging as a major societal job. Socially, the perceptual experience of gluttony has been altering with clip and today it is no longer perceived as a mark of wealth and surpluss but instead as a societal job. Research has shown that kids who are overweigh and corpulent are likely to be bullied or face cynicism from their equals. They are perceived to be irresponsible, which means they suffer socially. This means that gorging is no longer accepted as a societal pattern as it leads to overweight and fleshiness ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Economically, people are going good off and the life criterions have truly improved. However researches point out that gorging is non an economic job as it cuts across the divide, which means even kids and teens populating in low income countries are enduring from the job. This means that there are more implicit in economic factors, like the theoretical account of economic system that lays less accents on difficult work that increases Calorie ingestion which has conspired to worsen the job. Political forces that have lead to acknowledgment of the job include authorities policies that have defined the issue. In 1994, the authorities took a bold measure to include BED into the DSM-IV standards which means it was already recognized as a wellness job. Through the relevant organisations, the authorities has funded a figure of plans aimed at extenuating the job ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . However, the most instrumental force that has shaped gorging as a societal job is the media. Now and so, the media carries out runs that are aimed at maintaining kids out of gorging. The media has been critical of transnational corporations like McDonalds which have encouraged gluttony. On the other manus, media portraiture of desired organic structure size, particularly for adolescent misss, forces them to prosecute in weight loss plans that lead to emotion al orgy feeding. The public apprehension of gorging is coming to a convergence. As has been reviewed earlier, ancient apprehension of gorging was rather different from the modern apprehension. There were some societies that encouraged gorging in adult females to give them strength to bear kids while in some societies, gorging was perceived to come with wellness effects. Presents, with the increased apprehension of effect of gorging in mention to overweight and fleshiness, public definition of the corpulence portrays it as a major psychological job. Harmonizing to DSM-IV standards, orgy feeding is defined as a upset marked by eating larger than usual sum of nutrient in a short period of clip, most specific, within a period of two hours. It is lack of control on one Ã¢â¬Ës eating behaviour or eating that can non be controlled ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . In this definition, there are of import values and political orientations that have are put into consideration. Most of import, the definition p uts into consideration the wellness value in belief that while feeding is good ; it may come with eventful wellness effects. Concretely, gorging in young persons and stripling is understood as a psychological and behavioural job that comes with sedate effects particularly fleshy and fleshiness. However, gorging is still understood in different footings by different societal sections. For some parents, gorging in their kids may be a mark of growing in appetency ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Parents understand that throughout the life span, kids feeding behavior supports on altering and hence gorging in striplings corresponds to foods demands in their organic structure, which means they do non see it to be a job. However, for others, gorging is already recognized as a major wellness job and hence they are making their best to help their kids to get the better of it. Prevalence forms show that Binge Eating Disorder affects 1000000s of people in the United States, particularly young persons and striplings. However, the job is more marked in females than males. In the United States, the job affects 3.5 % females compared to 2 % males ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . The job is besides more marked in persons who are fleshy and corpulent as more than 30 % of persons seeking weight decrease intervention have shown marks of BED ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . The fact that orgy feeding is twice common in females than males shows that the job is non related to caloric demands as assumed by most parents. The most annihilating consequence of orgy feeding is that it leads to wellness complications like corpulence and fleshiness. Binge eating leads to increased adiposeness in kids and grownups which increases incidence of corpulence and fleshiness. Since the job cuts across the societal demographic divide, including affluent people and those from low income co untries, there are no societal unfairnesss which are associated with the job. By and large, it can be recognized as a job associated with addition in wealth, modern nutrient processing engineering, and alterations in different domains of life ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Social value and political political orientations have impacted otherwise on the manner the job is viewed. As societal value keeps on altering, so has the public perceptual experience of corpulence and fleshiness. For illustration, traditionally, people with large organic structures who can presently be categorized corpulent were valued and viewed every bit good up. However, this has changed with the altering media perceptual experience of ideal organic structure weight. If any, there are few persons in the society who want to keep large organic structures ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . This means that if corpulence is being viewed negatively in the society, orgy feeding, which is a causative factor for corpulence and corpulent conditions are besides viewed negatively by the people. Politically, there has been less authorities concern on fleshiness and corpulence until late when the authorities took bold stairss in face of public menace posed by corpulence and fleshiness incidences t o establish steps to cover with the job, for illustration inclusion of gorging in DSM-IV ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Overweight and fleshiness are tied to the political political orientation of capitalist economy which is specifying the modern society. In capitalist economy, persons amass more, and indulge in civilization of consumerism hence driving frontward the civilization of gorging ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Gorging can be explained utilizing different societal theories. One of the recent theories that have been used to explicate gluttony is reversal theory which explains gorging as a response to high-tension emphasis ( Sue et al, 1998 ) . This theory has shown that adult females who engage in weight decrease plan suffer from tenseness and emphasis which forces them to prosecute in gorging. The same theoretical account has besides been expressed by psychosomatic theory which shows that emotional eating consequences from confusion and apprehensiveness related to emotional provinces that are in bend related to hunger and repletion ( Terry, 2005 ) . Another theory that explains gorging is addiction theory which suggest that when one habituates or adjusts a to nutrient cues, one is less likely to acquire satisfied and keeps on devouring nutrient ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . In line with this theory, societal acquisition theory besides shows that gorging is a erudite behaviour that is lea rned due to physical surrounding and interactions. Cognitive theories have pointed out that gorging is profoundly rooted in cognitive procedure which means it is a cognitively goaded procedure. This means that the encephalon is motivated to eat more and more with no feeling of repletion ( Terry, 2005 ) . In mention to the above theories, it can be deduced that there are biological, societal, and psychological causes of orgy feeding. In biological causes, it has been revealed that organic structure parts and endocrines like hypothalamus which control appetency may neglect to direct right message for hungriness and comprehensiveness and therefore lead to gorging. Psychological beginnings have shown that depression and orgy feeding are closely linked to each other. The U.S Department of Health and Human Services shows that more than half of orgy feeders are depressed or have suffered marks of depression in life ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . On societal factors, it has been shown that societ al force per unit area adds shame on crack addict feeders but this lone fuels their emotional feeding ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Environmental factors like parental pattern of usage of nutrient to conform kids fuels binge eating. A causal concatenation that explains pathway to gorging may be constructed as follows: Ideology/Values -Social influence Ã¢â¬â desired organic structure size, equal influence -Economic influence Ã¢â¬â alteration in working spiels, convenient and fast nutrient, less physical work -Media influence Ã¢â¬â force per unit area on desired organic structure size Positive influence Increased nutrient consumption due to positive influence like handiness of nutrient, eating while watching Television, and others Emotional feeding Triggered by stress/depression Effectss Corpulence Fleshiness Insomnia Relationship jobs Suicidal ideas Depression and anxiousness Gorging causes many wellness related physical, emotional, and societal jobs, including corpulence and fleshiness, emphasis, insomnia, self-destructive ideas, and many others. Depression, anxiousness, and sometimes substance maltreatment have been pointed out to be possible side effects of orgy feeding ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Binge eating besides comes with societal jobs like intervention relationship and calling. In footings of effects and benefits, gorging can be looked from two angles, from the point of position of those who benefit and those who suffer from the job. To get down with, there are much more people who suffer from the job than those who benefit from it. Those who suffer from the job include persons who are enduring the effects of such jobs like corpulence and fleshiness, close household and relates who are related to the person and besides suffer from the job, the authorities which has to incur one million millions of dollars in handling complications associated with the job, and many others ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . On the other manus, those who benefit from the job include concerns which deal with nutrient and others like pharmaceuticss which sell medical addendums to cover with complications of corpulence and fleshiness. Presently, there are many plans which are dedicated to extenuation of the job. It is of import to observe that most of these plans have taken the attack of supplying instruction to young persons and striplings on causes, effects, dangers, and ways to forestall gorging. While the authorities has instituted such policies as school eating policy that encourage healthy feeding, most of the plans are run by the private sector in concurrence with the authorities, most of them bing in their ain microenvironment. Some of these plans include Focus Adolescent Services, The Center- A Place of Hope, Eating Disorder Hope, and many others. These plans have used the most accessible information airing media, chiefly through the cyberspace to make as many young persons and striplings as possible. How to cite Overeating In Youths And Adolescents Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
To study culture is to study the linking motivations and behaviors of society, The way of life of a group of people, including symbols, values, behaviors, artifacts, and other shared aspects, which continually evolves as people share messages (Baldwin). If individuals are the varied indigents in a soup, culture is the stock that complements the different tastes and brings them into a cohesive recipe. As the definition states, culture is continuously evolving, but dramatic changes can be facilitated by catalysts such as the Lord Of the Rings.Written by John Ronald Rule Tolkien, LOTT has transcended typical cultural boundaries of geographic location, race, and age through the collective love and admiration by hundreds of thousands from around the world. LOTT fans have created their own subculture that has beliefs and behaviors that are different from the main groups within a culture which have been active since the sasss and in recent times been revived by the massive success of the film adaptations. We will write a custom essay sample on The One Ring to Rule a Subculture or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Theres inherent differences between the LOTT fantod of the sasss and the sasss but regardless the Ringers have influenced not only popular culture but also countries as a whole.Literature Review: The 1 asss was a turbulent period in American culture, characterized by the many extremes of the era. The promise of the New Deal and an enlightened society raised the baby boomer generation on the belief that America was focused on eliminating social inequality and injustice, but rapid arbitration continued racism, and most importantly the Vietnam War, had created a stark contrast of the promises and reality of the time. If we apply Hypotheses four cultural dimensions to asss thered be two contrasting cultures which are almost mirror representations of each other.The majority culture was on the right characterized by older age, a high power distance, masculinity affinity, and uncertainty avoidance, and individualistic values. While the younger left were at the opposite side of the spectrum . The right wing desired structure, valued more male orientated emotional rules like competition and directness, valued social status and government control, and valued individualistic goals. The hippie left valued more female orientated emotional rules like cooperation and gender equality, were completely anti-establishment and overspent, and lived for community and harmony.This duality of culture and counter culture was how asss society was divided, and many of the trends that arises were aimed at catering to one of the social groups. Not LOTT. LOTT fantod was one Of the few trends that was cable Of overcoming social division in a time where choosing a side was a cultural norm. After the release of the first volume in 1 959, The Fellowship of the Ring was created. Composed of literary scholars, The Fellowship was the very first community of LOTT super fans who looked at the scientific aspects of Toolkits MiddleEarth. Membership was based on the requirement that individuals publish research papers on aspects such as the elfish language and geography of Middle Earth, but those who didnt directly contribute to scholarly discussions could purchase many of the groups publications and be indirectly associated. This sub-community was relatively exclusive and respected the high culture aspects of being a LOTT fan The activities and expressions that represented what people believed to be Intellectual refinement (Baldwin), but Tolkien fantod would see a boom following the mass availability of the novels by id asss. The hippie movement resonated with the books message of overcoming trials and tribulations by a force thats intent on destroying anything natural. Sharon and his evil cohorts were the far overbearing hands of the government, and the hobbit of the Shire were the peace loving hippies who, through collaboration of the many races of Middle Earth, triumphed over evils advances. This message of oneness regardless of race and social Status perfectly complemented the hippie movement who used the books as another mean for promoting community. The novels also directly prioritize he preservation of nature and harmony another commonality between the hippie counterculture and LOTT. Between The Fellowship and the Ringer hippies LOTT fantod was unique to the 1 asss because despite the subcultures involved both wings of the society they were bound to each other by their love for Toolkits magnum opus.Tolkien fantod activity would slow down by the end of the asss but the Ringers spread out in society becoming environmental activists, politicians, actors/actresses, entertainers, and professors. But one Ringer is of particular interest, its reasonable to say hes he most well-known Tolkien and that hes the primary reason LOTT is a pop-culture phenomena today. Peter Jackson revalidated the LOTT sub community as well as created a whole new community thats based on the media age.The massive success of the LOTT and Hobbit film adaptations have ushered in a new Ringer, one thats international, much broader in terms of age, and is equally passionate for the epic fantasy series as the Ringers before. These new Ringers have embraced global media Sources of mass communications that involve the transmission of messages, formats, arrogating or content across national boundaries(Baldwin) and have used technology to facilitate global channels of communication such as online discussion forums to create cultural identity.Conclusion/Results: In conclusion even though the different eras of Tolkien fantod is a result of the different times, according to the similarity-attraction hypothesis A research proposition that the more similar we are to people, the more we will grow to like Tolkien fans should be bonded together through their love for LOTT And thats evident in the Ringer society today, Thundering. Mom is the current headquarters for the Tolkien super fan and is the activity center for everything LOTT.During the production of the films Jackson and actors involved were active on the website, providing filming updates and discussing their love for LOT R. Certify that have composed this writing from my own thoughts. All materials used to assist in this document have been properly referenced. I understand the penalty of copying work and confirm that this writing has not been popularized.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
The Partnership of Venturi Scott Brown Denise Scott Brown (born October 3, 1931 in Africa) and Robert Venturi (born June 25, 1925 in Philadelphia, PA) are known for smart urban designs and architecture steeped in popular symbolism. Kitsch becomes art in designs which exaggerate or stylize cultural icons. When they met and married, Denise Scott Brown had already made important contributions to the field of urban design. Through her work as an urban planner and her collaboration with Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates Inc. (VSB), she has brought the artifacts of popular culture into the realm of architecture and has shaped our understanding of the relationship between design and society. Robert Venturi is known for turning architecture on its head by exaggerating historical styles and incorporating cultural icons into the building design. For example, the Childrens Museum of Houston is built with the basic Classical characteristics- columns and pediment- but they are playfully exaggerated to appear cartoonish. Likewise, the Bank Building in Celebration, Florida has the stately form of the J.P. Morgan Co. Building, the iconic fortress on Wall Street in New York City. Yet, as designed by Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, theres a playful retro look that more resembles a 1950s-era gas station or hamburger restaurant. Venturi was one of the first modern architects who embraced this playful (some say sarcastic) architecture that became known as postmodernism. VSB, based in Philadelphia, PA, has long been recognized for much more than Postmodernist designs. The firm completed more than 400 projects, each uniquely suited to the special needs of the clients. The couple is highly educated individually. Scott Brown was born to Jewish parents in Nkana, Zambia and raised in a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. She attended the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg (1948-1952), the Architectural Association in London, England (1955), and then went on to the University of Pennsylvania to earn a Master of City Planning (1960) and a Master of Architecture (1965). Venturi started out closer to his Philadelphia roots, graduating summa cum laude from Princeton University (1947 A.B. and 1950 MFA) in nearby New Jersey. He then ventured to Rome, Italy to study as a Rome Prize Fellow at the American Academy (1954-1956). Early in his architectural career, Venturi worked for Eero Saarinen, and then in the Philadelphia offices of Louis I. Kahn and Oscar Stonorov. He partnered with John Rauch from 1964 until 1989. Since 1960 Venturi and Scott Brown collaborated asÃ founding partners of Venturi, Scott Brown Associates. For decades Brown has directed the firms urban planning, urban design, and campus planning work. Both are licensed architects, planners, authors, and educators, yet it was Venturi alone who was awarded the Pritzker Prize in 1991, a contentious honor that many have decried as sexist and unjust. In 2016 the pair together was awarded the highest honor bestowed by theÃ American Institute of Architects- the AIA Gold Medal. Since retiring, Venturi and Brown are archiving their work at venturiscottbrown.org. Selected Projects: 1964: The Vanna Venturi House, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania- designed in 1962; named one of the Ten Buildings That Changed America in 2013.1968: Fire Station No. 4, Columbus, IN1970s: Preservation planning for historic districts in Galveston, Texas and Miami Beach, Florida1971: Trubek-Wislocki Houses, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts1972: Brant House, Greenwich, Connecticut1975: Tucker House, Katonah, New York1976: Allen Art Museum Addition, Oberlin, Ohio1976: House in Tuckers Town, Bermuda1980s: City plan for downtown Memphis, Tennessee1983: Gordon Wu Hall, Princeton, New Jersey1990s: Master plan and schematic design for the Denver Civic Center Cultural Complex,Ã Denver, Colorado1990s: Campus plans for Dartmouth College and the University of Pennsylvania1991: Sainsbury Wing, National Gallery, London, UK1991: Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington1996: Sun Trust Bank, Celebration, Florida1997: Mielparque Nikko Kirifuri (resort hotel), Nikko, Japan2008: Chapel, Episcopa l Academy, Newtown Square, PA Learn More: Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture by Robert VenturiIn this groundbreaking book, published in 1966, Robert Venturi challenged modernism and celebrated the mix of historic styles in great cities like Rome.Learning from Las Vegas by Robert Venturi, Steven Izenour, and Denise Scott Brown, 1972Subtitled The Forgotten Symbolism of Architectural Form this postmodernist classic called the vulgar billboards of the Vegas Strip emblems for a new architecture. The controversial book presented the idea that architects could learn important lessons in design from commercial art and casino ads.Architecture as Signs and Systems for a Mannerist Time by Venturi Scott Brown, Harvard University Press, 2004AA Words 4: Having Words by Denise Scott Brown, Architectural Association, 2009A Difficult Whole: A Reference Book on the Work of Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown by Architecture Without Content, 2016 Famous Robert Venturi Quote: Less is a bore.- Rejecting the simplicity of modernism and responding to the Mies van der Rohe dictum, Less is more
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
TOEFL Grammar and Structure Practice Quiz This quiz is for in-class use and does not have the answers provided. Take the interactive version of the TOEFL Grammar Practice Quiz for correct answers and results. Fill In The Blank 1. _____ his illness, John continued to play rugby. DespiteAlthoughEven though 2. After many peace corps teachers return to the States, ___________ professional English teachers. often they becomethey often becomeand often become 3. _______ that the American Indian crossed a land bridge into North America from what is now Russia. It is consideredIt is thoughtIt was thought 4. None of the students _____ a car. hashavehave got 5. _______ the Depression, individual stock ownership was common in the United States. It was duringBy the time ofBecause 6. Never before _____ as rapidly, as during the last three decades. communications have developedhave communications developedhave developed communications 7. It is not yet clearly understood _________ cause obesity. why eating too many hamburgers canwhy can eating too many hamburgerseating too many hamburgers can 8. The Eiffel Tower is ________ the Leaning Tower of Pisa. as popular a tourist attraction thanas popular a tourist attraction asas more popular a tourist attraction as 9. While most New Yorkers believe in ghosts, ______ do not. are a few whothere are a few whichthere are a few that 10. With his first painting Le Temple du Mordu, George Lesereaux _______ to establish himself as a master of pointillism. couldwith abilitywas able 11. ______ Chinese is more difficult to learn than English. It is certain thatCertain it is thatCertainly is 12. Thinker and poet, ___________ the Brinker prize for his poem Alexander in 1976. Claude Pinocchio was awardedwas awarded Claude Pinocchiowas awarded to Claude Pinocchio 13. Research now proves that eating fish and chips is healthier than _______ when eating hamburgers.eating hamburgers.to eat hamburgers. 14. It was ______ Johnny finally gave up. such difficult thatso difficult thatso a difficult test that 15. __________, I would have returned it immediately. If I knew that you wanted to read itI had known that you wanted to read itHad I known that you wanted to read it 16. In the 1990s, _________ its premium position in the world economy. the USA returnedthe USA returned tothe USA returning 17. ___________ in a home where two parents work is a difficult task indeed. Children brought upTo bring up childrenBringing up children 18. There has not yet been any decision made _______ will represent the country at the Olympics concerned athletes chosenas to which athletesthose athletes 19. _____________, Shakespeare was also a prolific writer of sonnets. Noting for his playsFamous playsNoted for his plays 20. The Concorde, which is ______________ jet, can reach New York from London is approximately 2 and 1/2 hours. fastest in the worldthe fastest of the worldthe worlds fastest 21. Scientists _____________ the existence of nano-technology capable of computation at the atomic level. newly have developedhave recently developedhave still developed 22. ___________ is portrayed in Hermann Hesses Steppenwolf. Man searching his soulA man searched his soulA man in search of his soul 23. Despite ____________, Jack continued to lose weight. he increased his food intakeincreasing food intakeincreased food intake 24. Singer and entertainer, ____________ for his beautiful and expressive voice. was Frank Sinatra famousfamous was Frank SinatraFrank Sinatra was famous 25. It is not only important to be on time, __________ courteous when replying to colleagues. but also is it important beingbut is it also important to bebut it is also important to be 26. __________ was this check written? To whoWhomTo whom 27. Children attending private schools ____________ being slightly spoiled. are often accused ofoften accusedare often accused from 28. Diets based on only one basic food element ____________ no diet at all. can be as ineffective thancan be as ineffective ascan be so ineffective than 29. ________________ that James Franklin made his stunning debut. It was LionsIt was in LionsLions it was 30. Considering human history, it ______________ using mass communications. has recently been that manis only recently that man has begunonly recently is that man has begun 31. That test was _________________ . such difficult that I almost failedas difficult that I almost failedso difficult that I almost failed 32. Within Tuscany ___________ Matthew Spender. is written fromwas written fromwas written by More Resources Free Online TOEFL Study GuidesTOEFL Vocabulary Practice QuizTOEFL Grammar Practice Quiz
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Is this a great or what - Essay Example It is a kind of printed appearances on topical contemporary questions. In fact, it is the time in TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s life and work, which is marked by satirical rage, bitterness, and despair, sharply contrasting with the prevailing view of the writer as a laughing humorist, which has been living in the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds for a long time, and making late Twain one of the truly tragic figures of American culture. In particular, in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Damned Human RaceÃ¢â¬ he questions the status of man as a supreme being in the hierarchy of living creatures of planet Earth. In typical to him unmasking manner of that period of creativity, Mark Twain brings into being a great American essay extremely conforming to the standards of writing an essay according to LaphamÃ¢â¬â¢s notion. The first obvious LaphamÃ¢â¬â¢s norm, which is brightly represented in TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Damned Human RaceÃ¢â¬ , is writing an assay as a depiction of thoughts through their audition on the paper or any other way. It is some sort of improvisation, or rather a flurry of speculations on a concrete acute topic. As we can see from the analyzed essay, Twain represents his own vision, his own understanding of the origin of a mankind through making contrasts of parallel lines of behavior patterns of human beings and animals. His striking and challenging idea becomes that particular fact that comes from his own supervisions and serves as an unpredictable concept, which makes peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds to protest or question their precede knowledge of the issue. And this is a specific feature of an improvisational manner of reflections. The central point for TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s argument against the highest nature of men is their cruelty, meanness, and consumer nature in comparison with hig her principles of animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ existence, dictated by the laws of nature only. In a point of TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s fact, humans enslave each other on the basis of dependence and money ranking; kill dissidents and representatives of other religious